The Gas Laws

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In the late 1600s to late 1700s a number of scientists were working on understanding the how the volume, temperature, pressure and the amount  of a gas are related to one another. In this lesson, we will explore the laws that these scientists developed,

  1. Boyle’s Law (Relating pressure of a gas and volume of a gas)
  2. Charle’s Law (Relating tempearture of a gas and volume of a gas)
  3. Gay-Lussac’s Law (Relating pressure of a gas and temperature of a gas)
  4. Avogadro’s Law (Relating volume of a gas to the amount of a gas)
  5. The combined Gas Law (Relating pressure, temperature and volume of a gas)

 

Boyle’s Law

Robert Boyle (1627 -1691)

Robert Boyle (1627 -1691)

Robert Boyle, an Irish physicist, published his law in 1662. His law was based on research involving the relationship of the pressure of a gas and volume of gas. Boyle stated that at a constant temperature, the product of a gases volume and pressure is always a constant. He proved this mathematically with the following equation.

Boyle's Law

Boyle’s Law

 

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Charles’s Law

Jacques Charles (1746 - 1823)

Jacques Charles (1746 – 1823)

Jacques Charles, a French scientist, is credited with the the founding a law that relates the relationship between volume and temperature of gas. Through Charles’s experimentation in the late 1700s, the law was developed and states that for a gas at a constant pressure, the volume of that gas is directly proportional to its temperature. This law was proven mathematically with the following equation.

Charles's Law

Charles’s Law

 

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Gay-Lussac’s Law

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 - 1850)

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 – 1850)

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, a French chemist, published his law in 1802. His law states that the pressure that a gas exerts on the sides of a container of a fixed volume is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas. His law was proven mathematically with the following equation.

Gay-Lussac's Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

 

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Avogadro’s Law

Avogadro_Amedeo

Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856)

Amedeo Avogadro, an Italian scientist, hypothesized in 1811, that if you have two equal volume samples of a gas at the same temperature and pressure, the two samples will contain the exact same number of molecules. His law was proven mathematically with the following equation.

Avogadro's Law

Avogadro’s Law

 

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The Combined Gas Law

The combined gas law has no official founder. It is the combination of Boyle’ law, Charles’s Law, and Gay-Lussac’s law. The combined gas law has the following equation.

The Combined Gas Law

The Combined Gas Law

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